NTP Server Working in RHEL7

Network Time Protocol (NTP server) is a protocol that is used to synchronize computer clock times in a network of computers. NTP server working, uses Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) to synchronize computer clock times to a millisecond, and sometimes to a fraction of a millisecond.

This implementation of NTP enables sub-second accuracy to be achieved.

Over the Internet, accuracy to 10s of milliseconds is normal. On a Local Area Network (LAN), 1 ms accuracy is possible under ideal conditions. This is because clock drift is now accounted and corrected for, which was not done in earlier, simpler, time protocol systems. A resolution of 233 picoseconds is provided by using 64-bit time stamps. The first 32-bits of the time stamp is used for seconds, the last 32-bits are used for fractions of seconds.

NTP represents the time as a count of the number of seconds since 00:00 (midnight) 1 January, 1900 GMT. As 32-bits is used to count the seconds, this means the time will “roll over” in 2036. However NTP works on the difference between time stamps so this does not present the same level of problem as other implementations of time protocols have done. If a hardware clock that is within 68 years of the correct time is available at boot time then NTP will correctly interpret the current date. The NTP4 specification provides for an “Era Number” and an “Era Offset” which can be used to make software more robust when dealing with time lengths of more than 68 years.

What is NTP Stratum?

NTP Server working actually based on a hierarchical protocol and is divided into stratum which define the distance from the reference clock. A reference clock source that relays UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) time and has little or no delay is known as a stratum-0 device. Stratum-0 servers cannot be used on the network, instead, they are directly connected to computers which then operate as primary time servers.

ntp stratumA primary server that receives a time signal from a stratum 0 device either through the GPS network or national time and frequency transmission is known as a stratum-1 device. On a network a stratum 1 time server supplies the time to other devices on the network which are known as stratum-2 devices. These also can be used as a time source and equipment that connects to a stratum-2 device to receive it become stratum-3 and so on.

NTP can handle up to 16 different stratum levels, although the lower down the hierarchy you go the less accurate the devices become. However, to make the system more reliable, each client can receive a time source from multiple servers. Stratum 2 devices and below can also synchronise with each other. The NTP software monitors continuously the figures of stability and accuracy of all the servers and always chooses a server with the best figures.

What is NTP port number?

SNTP is a reduced version of the NTP protocol that can be used to replace TIME clients. NTP is a far more sophisticated protocol created by Dave Mills. NTP is implemented via UDP over port 123, and can operate in broadcast and multicast modes, or by direct queries.

 

[references: ntpserver.wordpress.com | redhat.com | wikipedia]